The skin is the organ that protects us against the penetration of an organism alien substances and disease agents. Unfortunately, the skin is also affected by various diseases, and psoriasis refers to the number of more difficult-to-treat. In addition, the disease of delivery the patient a little bit of difficulty.
What is psoriasis
The word "psora" in Greek means "itching of the skin, scabies". This title reflects the main symptom of a disease. Also psoriasis is sometimes called the scaly depriving its external form. From the scientific point of view, psoriasis refers to the number of diseases of the skin – skin conditions. The illness alters the appearance of the skin, which causes the patient suffering, costs, in the first place, the strong itching.
About psoriasis was known in antiquity, but then often confused with other skin diseases. As the self-skin of the disease of medicine recognized its in 1799 g. at this time, the doctors tend to treat psoriasis you are probably not the same as the skin of the disease, but as a systemic disease, because it affects not only the skin but also the immune system, the nervous system and the endocrine system.
The mechanism of development of psoriasis
Psoriasis is a violation of a regeneration process of the cells of the top layer of skin (epidermis). If the rate of the cells of the epidermis (keratinocytes) are updated every month or every three weeks, when the psoriasis this process takes much less time – only 3 to 6 days. It is important, also, that the cells of the horny layer of the skin when they are obtained from underdeveloped and are not able to carry out their functions. The result is lost intercellular communication, the dermal layer cannot properly form and to get used to. So are psoriatic arthritis education in the skin – papules, pustules, and platelets. There is excessive angiogenesis, that is, it is formed in very small vessels. The lower layers of the skin are not affected. In the mechanism of the occurrence of formations in the pathological on the skin also are the cells of the human immune system – lymphocytes.
Some of the characteristics of current and the occurrence of psoriasis
Psoriatic eruptions on the skin, are often formed in places where the skin was wounded, in places of burns, blisters, scratches and even accidents. A similar phenomenon is called the phenomenon of Koebner , in tribute to a dermatologist German Heinrich Köbner, who described this phenomenon for the first time in 1872. Koebner's phenomenon is characteristic of psoriasis about half of cases and for 90% of severe cases of psoriasis.
For psoriasis is characteristic seasonal. Most of the patients in the cold period of the year the manifestation of the disease in the skin become more visible. Some patients, on the contrary, the heat promotes the progress of the disease.
How is psoriasis?
According to modern concepts, this skin disease is not contagious, that is, it is not transmitted by contact with another person, even if the affected area of the skin as the skin of a healthy person. Is not fixed the transmission of diseases through blood. It is also not possible to contract psoriasis, which when in contact with animals, or even in a marriage the disease of the environment. The cause of the disease resides solely in the body of the patient, although some adverse external factors can also affect your influence.
Those who suffer from psoriasis,
Psoriasis a bit more likely to suffer from a woman. The disease develops predominantly at a young age (up to 25 years). It is the most dangerous period of 16 to 20 years, during this time, the signs of the disease appear in 70% of patients. Despite getting sick in may, and the elderly. Generally, however, in more advanced age, the symptoms are expressed not so clearly. On the other hand, children (until 16 years), the disease also occurs infrequently (approximately 4% of patients). There are racial differences in the incidence of the disease. More often we get sick representatives of the white race, and some groups, such as, for example, that the indians of south America, the disease does not occur.
In spite of the undeniable progress of the medicine, the science still does not have answers to many questions. Basically, it is in relation to the causes of the development of many pathologies. This applies to psoriasis. The interest in this case takes the not academic. After all, if the understanding, as is born this pathology of the skin, so you can find and as a complete cure. And because the clarity in matters of etiology of psoriasis, although scientists do not, it remains incurable. In this case, this only means that the patient is unable to get rid of the skin, psoriasis, and even death. Although in the majority of cases, psoriasis is not the immediate cause of death. Methods of treatment allow to inhibit the development of psoriasis and prevent the appearance of complications.
There are several theories to explain the occurrence of this skin disease, however, none of them is completely are not satisfied with scientists:
The factors that contribute to the development of the disease
This category should be assigned a phenomenon that directly may not be the cause of psoriasis. However, if you have the propensity, for example, hereditary predisposition, these factors can become the trigger that triggers the disease mechanism. In particular, note that you get sick more often people with thin, dry and sensitive skin. This is related with the lack of output from the secretion of the sebaceous glands, which thanks to the stimulus, in particular the gas, can penetrate deeply into the skin tissue.
Factors of psoriasis, very, very:
- the alcoholism;
- wounds, injuries and cuts of the skin;
- the skin burns, including solar;
- bites of insects or other animals;
- the stress;
- the poor diet, the abundance of greasy food, sweets, lack of fruits and vegetables, the increased consumption of caffeine-containing beverages;
- diabetes mellitus;
- taking certain medicines, especially antibiotics, NSAIDS, gIPOtinsignia of medications, vitamin complexes, antidepressants, antimalarials and anticonvulsants;
- the administration of drugs lithium (li violates synthesis keratocytes);
- the lack of vitamins in the body;
- infectious diseases of the skin (fungus, ringworm, dermatitis, furunculosis, herpes, acne);
- the system infection, or respiratory infections (flu, DRA);
- infection with helicobacter pylori, staph;
- the vaccination;
- moving to other climatic zones;
- hypothermia or cold microclimate;
- food poisoning;
- low immunity, including AIDS;
- the effect on the skin chemicals, including detergents, cosmetics, perfumery products;
- it is very frequent washing of the skin, which destroys the useful microbiota;
- the malfunction of the GASTROINTESTINAL goiter.
Most of these external factors. And this means that any person able to avoid the impact on the body, to avoid the development of disease.
The most common type of psoriasis is common psoriasis. It is about 90% of the cases.
Few know that psoriasis can affect not only the skin but also the joints and the nails. Many psoriasis patients of the skin can also occur psoriasis of the nails (psoriatic onihodistrofiya) or psoriatic arthritis (a disease of the joints).
Psoriatic arthritis is typically affects the small joints of the hands and feet. However, the pathology can spread to the major compositions, affect the spine. He runs the risk of a patient with a disability.
Psoriatic arthritis refers to a strong psoriasis, regardless of which is the percentage of the skin when this is reached. This form occurs in 15% of patients.
The most severe type of psoriasis is psoriatic erythroderma (2% of cases). Also serious is pustular (1% of cases). Psoriasis of the nails can occur about a quarter of the patients. This type of psoriasis may not be accompanied by the appearance of rashes on the skin.
Tear-shaped form of psoriasis usually occurs after infections (ARI, influenza). Close to 85% of the patients with the tear psoriasis in the blood are detected antibodies to the Streptococcus responsible for the development of angina, and 63% of patients with this type of psoriasis, shortly before the worsening patients Faringandtom. Pustular psoriasis is usually specific to people with overweight.
There is, also, the scale of assessment of severity of psoriasis. This index considers several manifestations of the disease:
- the redness of the skin,
- itching of the skin,
- thickening of the skin,
- flushing the skin,
- the bark,
- the area of the lesion of the skin.
Psoriasis is not a franco-pathology. The main danger is the bacterial adhesion and fungal infection of the skin. Also, in some cases, psoriasis can take gенералandзonваннsй the nature and amaze the entire surface of the skin. Are especially dangerous such types of gенералandзonваннongon skin lesions, such as psoriatic erythroderma and gенералandзonванная form pustular disease. Psoriatic arthritis can affect not only the small joints, but the spine. The joints and the spine can become deformed, which leads to the inability of the patient.
Less frequently taken into consideration the complexity, which brings with it the psoriasis – the psychological problem of the plan. Pathology has its negative impact on quality of life, as well as hypertension and diabetes.
About 71% of the patients believe that psoriasis is a serious problem of his life. People, especially young people, have psoriatic arthritis of the label in the visible parts of the body, especially on the face, it can be difficult to communicate, which leads to the low social adaptation, the inability to do a particular job, or to arrange his personal life. And this, in turn, leads to psychological problems, neurosis, depression, alcoholism. That, in turn, would increase still further the state of the patient. It is a vicious circle, exit from which is not easy.
Typically the pathology is easily diagnosed by the doctor during the examination. The psoriatic plaques on the skin have appearance distinct and difficult to be confused with symptoms of other pathologies of the skin, including, and nature allergic. When the psoriasis usually are not present swelling in the skin, but when the allergic dermatitis – this is a common phenomenon.
Except for the severe forms of the disease, there is no specific system settings, such as, for example, in the analysis of the blood, in that one can pass an unequivocal diagnosis. When severe psoriasis in the blood changes are observed specific to the intense inflammatory process (leukocytosis, increased ESR and t. d.).
Can be performed a skin biopsy to exclude other skin complaints. When the biopsy is fixed to the immaturity keratocytes, the increase of the content in the skin T lymphocytes and macrophages. In local injury can occur increased fragility of vessels syndrome (Auspitz).
Also one should consider that there are forms of psoriasis, not similar to vulgar, as the drip, pustwlasny and erythroderma. The patient can often get them for the manifestations of allergy in the skin and treated properly. Psoriasis of the nails may be confused with fungal infections.
Psoriatic arthritis is much like rheumatoid arthritis. However, when the diagnosis of arthritis rheumatism are made special tests, so if your result was negative, that is, the base of suspicion of psoriatic arthritis.
When the diagnosis of psoriasis, the doctor identifies the presence of псonрandаtandческonй triad:
- stearic point,
- terminal of the film
- foci of hemorrhage.
This means that the surface of plates of the skin to the touch oily and is similar to stearin. After you remove the plaque under it can occur thin and smooth film on the surface that act small drops of blood"black dew").
Methodology for the complete cure of psoriasis has not yet been developed. This is due in large part to the fact that until now there is no conventional wisdom of the theory of the etiology of the disease. Therefore, the treatment is basically symptomatic in nature.
He has two basic strategies for the fight against penetrating the skin of a T-lymphocyte and fight with цandtonкandнамand and other mediators of inflammation. When the simple treatment of psoriasis most effective recognized treatment, designed to address the lack of vitamin D in the body. In particular, the application of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is able to translate the disease in the remission stage of 70% of the patients.
The treatment includes medicines and treatments non-technical.
The main methods of treatment of psoriasis
|The name of the method of treatment||Working principle||Method of application in the treatment of psoriasis||The stage of psoriasis, the treatment that uses the method|
|Anti-inflammatory drugs non-steroidal||fighting inflammation in the skin||are applied on the skin||light, medium,|
|Moisturizing ointment||moisturize the skin, promote the removal of scales||are applied on the skin||light, medium,|
|Глюкonкonрtandкonсtерonandds||fighting inflammation in the skin||are applied on the skin, are accepted into||medium: heavy|
|Immunosuppressive||reduce the activity of the cells of the immune system in the skin tissue||are accepted for within||heavy|
|)||stabilize the division of the cells of the skin||are accepted for within||heavy|
|Antidepressants, anxiolytics||improve the psycho-emotional state||are accepted for within||medium: heavy|
|The ultraviolet radiation||treatment of inflammation, increase in the concentration of vitamin D in the skin||the control of exposure of the skin||light, medium,|
Psoriasis can get sick at any person. However, the exact causes of psoriasis do not know anyone. This means that it is impossible to avoid? Of course not. In the first place, the danger should pay attention to those who have no relatives, the patients of psoriasis. Such people are in the risk group. Also in the risk group includes smokers, people who have diabetes have very dry skin.
The people who are in the risk group, it is recommended to monitor your health and skin condition, avoid injury to the skin or injury. After all, the pathology can develop even after the tattoo application of the tattoo parlor. It is also important to observe the principles of a correct diet, to fight against the infections.
Secondary prevention is the prevention of relapse. This type of prevention is essential to minimize the measures of treatment of exacerbations. Secondary prevention includes skin care, rational diet, fight with the stress. To deal with states of anxiety and depression, it is recommended to go to a therapist.